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Stephen Shirodkar
Stephen Shirodkar

One More Time(1970) PORTABLE

In comparison to the global stakes of the first film, Salt and Pepper, Lewis keeps things much more emotionally grounded with small stakes that allow us to care much more about our central characters Charles Salt (Sammy Davis Jr.), and Christopher Pepper (Peter Lawford).

One More Time(1970)

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The enactment of the Clean Air Act of 1970 (1970 CAA) resulted in a major shift in the federal government's role in air pollution control. This legislation authorized the development of comprehensive federal and state regulations to limit emissions from both stationary (industrial) sources and mobile sources. Four major regulatory programs affecting stationary sources were initiated: the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS, pronounced "knacks"), State Implementation Plans (SIPs), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs). Furthermore, the enforcement authority was substantially expanded. The adoption of this very important legislation occurred at approximately the same time as the National Environmental Policy Act that established the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA was created on December 2, 1970 in order to implement the various requirements included in these Acts.

Major amendments were added to the Clean Air Act in 1977 (1977 CAAA). The 1977 Amendments primarily concerned provisions for the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) of air quality in areas attaining the NAAQS. The 1977 CAAA also contained requirements pertaining to sources in non-attainment areas for NAAQS. A non-attainment area is a geographic area that does not meet one or more of the federal air quality standards. Both of these 1977 CAAA established major permit review requirements to ensure attainment and maintenance of the NAAQS.

During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization. The first, usually called the classical school of organization, emphasizes the need for well-established lines of authority, clearly defined jobs, and authority equal to responsibility. The second, often called the participative approach, focuses on the desirability of involving organization members in decision making so that they will be more highly motivated.

Recent work by a number of students of management and organization may help to answer such questions.2 These studies indicate that there is not one best organizational approach; rather, the best approach depends on the nature of the work to be done. Enterprises with highly predictable tasks perform better with organizations characterized by the highly formalized procedures and management hierarchies of the classical approach. With highly uncertain tasks that require more extensive problem solving, on the other hand, organizations that are less formalized and emphasize self-control and member participation in decision making are more effective. In essence, according to these newer studies, managers must design and develop organizations so that the organizational characteristics fit the nature of the task to be done.

The objective was to explore more fully how the fit between organization and task was related to successful performance. That is, does a good fit between organizational characteristics and task requirements increase the motivation of individuals and hence produce more effective individual and organizational performance?

While our major purpose in this article is to explore how the fit between task and organizational characteristics is related to motivation, we first want to explore more fully the organizational characteristics of these units, so the reader will better understand what we mean by a fit between task and organization and how it can lead to more effective behavior. To do this, we shall place the major emphasis on the contrast between the high-performing units (the Akron plant and Stockton laboratory), but we shall also compare each of these with its less effective mate (the Hartford plant and Carmel laboratory respectively).

It is interesting to note that the less successful Carmel laboratory had more of its decisions made at the top. Because of this, there was a definite feeling by the scientists that their particular expertise was not being effectively used in choosing projects.

As with formal attributes, the less effective Hartford and Carmel sites had organization climates that showed a perceptibly lower degree of fit with their respective tasks. For example, the Hartford plant had an egalitarian distribution of influence, perceptions of a low degree of structure, and a more participatory type of supervision. The Carmel laboratory had a somewhat top-heavy distribution of influence, perceptions of high structure, and a more directive type of supervision.

The results indicated that the individuals in Akron and Stockton showed significantly more feelings of competence than did their counterparts in the lower-fit Hartford and Carmel organizations.6 We found that the organization-task fit is simultaneously linked to and interdependent with both individual motivation and effective unit performance. (This interdependency is illustrated in Exhibit IV.)

Conversely, the managers at Hartford, the low-performing plant, were in a less formalized organization with more participation in decision making, and yet they were not as highly motivated like the Akron managers. The Theory Y assumptions would suggest that they should have been more motivated.

The problem of achieving a fit among task, organization, and people is something we know less about. As we have already suggested, we need further investigation of what personality characteristics fit various tasks and organizations. Even with our limited knowledge, however, there are indications that people will gradually gravitate into organizations that fit their particular personalities. Managers can help this process by becoming more aware of what psychological needs seem to best fit the tasks available and the organizational setting, and by trying to shape personnel selection criteria to take account of these needs.

For many enterprises, given the new needs of younger employees for more autonomy, and the rapid rates of social and technological change, it may well be that the more participative approach is the most appropriate. But there will still be many situations in which the more controlled and formalized organization is desirable. Such an organization need not be coercive or punitive. If it makes sense to the individuals involved, given their needs and their jobs, they will find it rewarding and motivating.

5. For a more detailed description of this survey, see John J. Morse, Internal Organizational Patterning and Sense of Competence Motivation (Boston, Harvard Business School, unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1969).

In December 1921, Treasury Secretary Andrew Mellon approved the Peace Dollar to replace the Morgan Dollar. The Peace Dollar commemorated the declaration of peace between the United States and Germany. The Mint made more than one million Peace Dollars in less than one month. Six months later nearly 25 million Peace Dollars had been minted.

Substantial county boundary changes are those affecting an estimated population of 200 or more; changes of at least one square mile where an estimated population number was not available, but research indicated that 200 or more people may have been affected; and annexations of unpopulated territory of at least 10 square miles.

"Tora! Tora! Tora!" is one of the deadest, dullest blockbusters ever made. The very word "blockbuster" may be too lusty to describe it; maybe "blocktickler" is more like it for this timid epic. The subject is grand enough, but the screenplay mostly concerns itself with clerks, secretaries, teletype operators and government functionaries.

The Japanese puppets at least have more life; Japanese directors who seem aware that SOMETHING should be happening controlled the Japanese sequences. By contrast, the Fleischer footage has the visual imagination of one of those dreadful Doublemint TV commercials. Everything seems to happen twice, to no purpose, and after the same lesson is drummed in long enough, we get the feeling we're watching the world's longest, most expensive audiovisual aid. Trouble is, it doesn't aid us much. Now that, you know that the Pearl Harbor attack was possible because of bureaucratic botchery on the American side, what do you know you didn't know before?

Over the decades, EARTHDAY.ORG has brought hundreds of millions of people into the environmental movement, creating opportunities for civic engagement and volunteerism in 193 countries. Earth Day engages more than 1 billion people every year and has become a major stepping stone along the pathway of engagement around the protection of the planet.

Today, Earth Day is widely recognized as the largest secularobservance in the world, marked by more than a billion people every year as a dayof action to change human behavior and create global, national and local policychanges.

Thanks everyone for commenting. You're bringing back yet more great shoes and memories, Tiger Jayhawk wasn't it a bit like the Nike Boston? Jim, was the LDV a bit like the waffle trainer? Jeff Johnson was not only in charge of the initial operations but a great talent scout and coach as Reenie remembers. I believe he coached Cathy O'Brian who set and still holds the HS marathon record of 2:34 and went on to 2 Olympics. I believe Jeff still lives in the Upper Valley of NH and his latest talent find was Andrew Wheating who in about a year went from soccer player to the Olympics in the 800 as an Oregon freshman Jeff is also a great track photographer. Given the Nike connection in Exeter except for the Lydiards I was Nike all the way. Why not? Any runner in town had the latest and greatest and they could cook up modified versions literally overnight. The lab had a mini shoe manufacturing operation with real old time shoe makers. Innovation happened minute by minute. No long wait for a sample from Asia as today. Big reason for these golden shoe years. There were tons of great runners in town including Jim Crawford a Texas miler who if I recall correctly had the world indoor mile record for a few days. We had a great time with Jim because in winter when it was icy with his elegant forefoot stride he couldn't stay on his feet. 041b061a72




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