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Khan et al. [47] showed that concrete with RTSF had an ultrahigh strain-rate sensitivity whereas concrete with MSF had an ultrahigh creep-rate sensitivity. Khan and Cheema [48] showed that RTSF concrete had higher resistance to compressive strength and permeability degradation than regular concrete, and had greater completion time tolerance. Khan and Cheema [48] also showed that test specimens produced using RTSF generally exhibited higher flexural strength than those produced in conventional mixtures.

It appears that the addition of steel fibers to concrete, either in the early or later stages of concrete production, could be effective in reducing concrete cracking on a variety of surfaces (i.e., fresh or hardened concrete). It has been shown in some studies that steel reinforcement fibers can be a good substitute in terms of durability and performance of concrete, although others have suggested that they may not produce similar benefits as steel [15].

Liu and Charlton [49] studied the effect of steel fiber incorporation in concrete on the shrinkage behavior. They found that the addition of steel fibers (either manufactured or recycled) delayed the initial and final shrinkage rates of concrete, and delayed the occurrence of cracks on the surface of the concrete slab.

The size of recycled tire steel fibers (RTSF) accounts for approximately 95% of that of waste tires. The basis of RTSF product is waste tires that have been cut into small segments and then sorted by size. The steel-wire-mixing, kind of machines, and process of RTSF are the same as that of steel-wire-mixing, kind of machines, and process of waste tires [50].

Tracey et al. [59] showed that the effect of friction stir technology (FST) on the concrete flow could be considered as a shear thickening or a solidification effect, which results in a decrease in the viscosity of concrete. d2c66b5586


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